28 August 2011

Vachana Sahitya Software

Akka Mahadevi



  •   Biography of Sri Vadiraja
  •   Works of Sri Vadiraja
  •   Vadiraja  E-books for download

Shri Vadiraja Theertha was great saint, ascetic, prolific writer and poet, equally well versed in Sanskrit and Kannada, who has left a very deep imprint on Madhva society. Sri Vadiraja Theertha is unique amongst all Madhva saints for many reasons. Shri Vadiraja Theertha was also the first ascetic who after a long life of 120 years, decided his own time of dropping the mortal connection - entered the Vrundavana and left for heavenly life at his own choice of time and place. Throughout the long life, Shri Vadiraja Theertha contributed a lot to "Vyasa Sahithya" and "Dasa Sahithya", exhibited extra-ordinary divine powers to bless devotees on many occasions and significantly strengthened the philosophy and traditions established by Shri Acharya Madhwa. Through his life and works, and also with other authentic sources, it is very well proved that Shri Vadiraja Theertha is none other than Shri Lathavya, the R^uju devatha, next to Shri Vayu. There are many volume available with beautiful narration of of divine life history of Shri Vadiraja. With his blessing, let us try to recollect some important events in his life, to realise his great personality.

Born to a poor brahmin family, in a small village called Hoovinakere (near Kundapur, Udupi District, Karnataka, India), in the paddy field, inspite of all precautions taken to ensure that the baby should be born inside the house, on the holy day of "Saadhana Dwadashi" in the year 1480 A.D., exhibiting his magnificent personality and the baby boy was received in a golden tray, by the people sent by Shirr Vageesha Theertha, the pontiff who blessed the couples for their long desire to get a son. The baby was lovely with all the 32 auspicious attributes indicating a Ruju jiva being born.

Named as " Bhovaraha", had the threading at the age of 5, quickly learnt the Vedas, Kavya, Nyaya and Vedantha at the very young age, ordained as a monk at the age of 8 and continued his studies under Sri VagIsha Theertha. At the very young age, Shri Vadiraja Theertha went for all around India, visiting all the holy places, defeating all opponent scholars and strengthening the philosophy founded by Shri Acharya Madhwa. During this tour, Shri Vadiraja blessed many devotees with his divine powers. Later Shri Vadirja Theertha became successor of Shri Vageesha Theertha, in the Shri Vishnu Theertha MaTha, one of the 8 MaTha established by Shri Madhwacharya, also called as or Kumbhaasi MaTha at that time.

The greatness of Sri Vadiraja's personality can be grasped by many incidents confirming to highest order of divinity. The fact that only he could introduce "Paryaya", the well needed reform in Pooja system of Shri Krishna Temple confirms that he is very much next to Shri Acharya .i.e. " Bhavi Samara" who attains the position of Shri Mukhyaprana in the next Kalpa. The Udupi Krishna temple itself was enlarged, substantially reconstructed and instead of the 8 ascetics
living in the various parts of the temple, they were provided with the presently existing arrangements of well spaced MaTha buildings for each of them. Shri Vadiraja installed the idols of Shri Mukyaprana and Shri Garuda in the Shri Krishna temple and also installed idols of Shri Acharya Madhva in the Shri Krishna temple and Pajaka kshethra. Sri Vadiraja introduced the practice of singing melodious keerthanas composed in kannada during Udupi Krishna Pooja. One of the songs which is regularly recited even now - "Lakshmi Narayana - jaya - Lakshmi Narayana" was composed by him with the ankitha of Hayavadana. "Dashavathara Stuthi" composed by Shri Vadiraaja is also very melodious in "Ashwa dati" and is being recited very often.

Shri Vadiraja extended the privilege of being Madhvas to other sections of society such as Goldsmiths and also composed many keerthanas in Tulu for the benefit of the local people, mainly labor class and thus blessed them.

Sri Vadiraja Theertha visited Vijayanagara, many times which was a great educational center for Dvaita vedantha that time. ShrI Vadiraja became greatest scholar of the day and made a very deep impression in Vijayanagara. During his long life, three kings ruled the Vijayanagara empire and Shri Vadiraja helped all of them. Shri Vadiraja Thee was honored with the title "Prasangabharana Theertha" by the king. Shri Vadiraja Theertha also cured the disease of the king when all other medicines failed. In order to build up a strong empire, Sri Vadiraja with his divine power, showed the well hidden place of the ancient treasury of Vali to the King of VijayaNagar. Out of that huge lump of wealth, Shri Vadiraja took only two idols, Rama and Vittala, being worshipped in Sode mutt even today.

Shri Vadiraja entered the Brundavan alive, meditating on this holy day in the year 1600 A.D, and the upper stone was covered as per his instructions once the japamani stopped moving. The Vrundavana is very unique known as Pancha Vrundavana. There are 4 small ones around the main Vrundavana. Each one is having the sannidhana of various forms of Lord Vishnu. Brahma, Vayu,Vishnu, Rudra are present - along with Sri Vadiraja in these Vrundavans. By performing prescribed austerities and worship in Sode, people get relieved of all kinds of human misery. The setting is very picturesque and conveys the feeling of a very holy and spiritual place.

Sri Vadiraja Tirtha wrote many works, not all of which have survived, unfortunately; and of those that have, not all are in print. Among the ones that are in print, the best known and most often read and cited is the Yukti-Mallika, which is a humongous treatise that conducts a threadbare logical analysis of different philosophical systems, with the author professing to proceed on the basis of strict rationality, with no fond or hateful preconceptions, and finding, at the end, that Madhva's view is the right one.

Notice the definitive usage "ante siddhastu siddhanto," and the use of 'Tattvavada,' rather than anything else, to name the doctrine which he finds right. Sri Vadiraja Tirtha uses his unique blend of wit, sarcasm, and poetic aptitude, to underscore many of the points made by Srimad Ananda Tirtha and other scholars before him; he communicates with his audience very effectively, by using pithy language peppered with down-to-Earth metaphors. In the Yukti-Mallika, we find detailed expositions of Madhva positions, as enshrined in the Vishnu-tattva-vinirnaya and other works, on the futility of atheism, the bheda interpretation of the so-called Maha-vakyas, etc. He also refutes the Brahma-Suutra-bhashya of Shankara, and gives quotes and interpretations not previously employed by Madhva scholars.

Other works by Sri Vadiraja Tirtha include the Mahabharata-Prasthana, an independent detailed commentary on the Mahabharata of Veda Vyasa. This, in fact, is the only authoritative detailed commentary on the Mahabharata by a Madhva scholar, as Srimad Ananda Tirtha's Mahabharata-tatparya-Nirnaya does not offer a line-by-line commentary on the epic. Sri Vadiraja Tirtha also wrote a commentary on the Mahabharata-tatparya-Nirnaya, and a translation of that work into Kannada (which has already been alluded to).

Among the other extant works of Sri Vadiraja Tirtha, two stand out: the Rukminisha-Vijaya and the Svapna-Vrndavanakhyana. The former is considered to be the greatest work of poetry ever written, and was written in response to a work called "Shishupala-vadha," which described the encounter between Krishna and Shishupala, and its background. Sri Vadiraja Tirtha objected for several reasons, among them the one that the work, whose title literally means "Shishupala's killing," is inauspiciously named and does nothing to signify Krishna's greatness. He then promised that he would obtain a new grantha within nineteen days, one that would cover the same subject the way it ought to be. He then authored the Rukminisha-Vijaya within that period.

The Swapna-Vrndavanakhyana was authored in a very special way. There was a deaf-mute and illiterate brahmana, who served Sri Vadiraja Tirtha in menial ways. Years after Sri Vadiraja Tirtha's Brndavana-pravesha, he appeared in the deaf-mute man's dreams over a period of several weeks, and gave him the Svapna-Vrndavanakhyana. Every next day, the deaf-mute man would go to the pontiff of the Matha, and recite whatever he had heard in his dream encounter with Sri Vadiraja Tirtha the previous night. All that was written down, but could not be made sense of. Finally, many years later, the same man was reborn, and became a sanyasi in Sri Vadiraja Tirtha's own line and came to head his Matha, and he then himself wrote an exposition on the Svapna-Vrndavanakhyana that he had received previously. A fragment of the Svapna-Vrndavanakhyana called the Anu-Vrndavanakhyana is regularly recited by devotees of Sri Vadiraja.

Works of Vadiraja: 

In addition, Sri Vadiraja Tirtha composed many devotional songs in Kannada; unfortunately, few of these have survived to the present. We are luckier with respect to his stotras: manuscripts of a few dozen of those have made it to our day, the better known of them being the Dashavatara-stuti, the Shri-Krishna stuti, the Hayagriva-sampada-stotra, the Haryashtakam, the Nava-graha stotra, etc.

Some how we have managed to give brief Listing of writings of sri guru vadiraja as follows:

Shruti Tatvaprakshika
Pashandamatha Khandanam
Sankalpa Padhati
Srimad Bhagavathanukramanika
Vayustuti Punascharanavidhi

Click here to download  Vaadiraja Krutis in kannada  

5.Karnataka Haridasa Kirtana Tarangini  - Sri Vadiraja Krutis

Lakshmi Shobhana Pada of Sri Vadiraja  

Lakshmi Shobhana Pada of Sri Vadiraja Audio rendered by Sri Vidyabhusana

6. Vaikunta varnane by Sri Vaadiraja - Introduction and Lyrics with audio files

History of Indian Music by Sambamoorthy

26 August 2011

Bhadrachala Ramadasa Kirtanas

  •  Biography
  •  Lyrics Books of Bhadrachala Ramadasa in english and various Indian languages
  • Lyrics of Dasharathi Shatakam by Bhadrachala Ramadasa 

Kancherla Gopanna (Telugu: కంచెర్ల గోపన్న) (c 1620 - 1680 CE), popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or Bhadrachala Ramadasu(Telugu: భద్రాచల రామదాసు), was a 17th century Indian devotee of Rama and a composer of Carnatic music.[1] He is one among the famous vaggeyakaras (same person being the writer and composer of a song) in the Telugu language, the others being Tyagaraja, Annamayya, Kshetryya. He lived in the village of Nelakondapalli near Bhadrachalam, Andhra Pradesh during the 17th century and is renowned for constructing a famous temple for Rama at Bhadrachalam. His devotional lyrics to Rama are famous in South Indian classical music as Ramadaasu Keertanalu. Even the doyen of South Indian classical music Saint Thyagaraja learned and later improved the style now considered standard krithi form of music composition.He also wrote Dasarathi Shatakamu (దాసరధీ శతకము) with a 'makuTamu' (మకుటము) 'dASaradhee karuNA payOnidhI' (దాశరధీ కరుణా పయోనిధీ!), a collection of nearly 108 poems dedicated to the son of Dasaratha (Lord Rama).

Early life and background

Ramadasu was born Kancherla Goparaju in an affluent Niyogi Telugu Brahmin family to Linganna Murthy and Kamamba in Nelakondapalli village of Khammamett Taluk (Warangal Division of erstwhile Hyderabad State)of northern Andhra Pradesh (Deccan region).


Ramadasu was appointed as the Tahsildar (revenue collector) of 'Palvoncha Paragana' by Akkanna, his uncle and the administrative head in the court of Qutub Shahi Sultan Abul Hassan Tana Shah. He discharged his official duties earnestly and collected revenues due to the Sultan - while continuing his unswerving service to Lord Rama by chanting his name and feeding the poor.

Reconstruction of Temple

One day, he visited Bhadrachalam for a Jatara (fair) and was disturbed by the dilapidated state of the temple there. Bhadrachalam was significant to devotees of Rama for many reasons. Lord Rama is said to have stayed near the Parnasala there with Sita and Lakshmana during his exile and also to have visited Sabari near Badrachalam. Pothana is believed to have been given direction by Rama to translate the Bhagavata Purana into Telugu here. In spite of its significance, the temple was utterly neglected. So, Ramadasu started to raise funds for the renovation and reconstruction of the temple. After he emptied his coffers and could raise no more money, the villagers appealed him to spend his revenue collections for the reconstruction and promised to repay the amount after harvesting crops. As such, Ramadas finished the reconstruction of the temple with six hundred thousand rupees collected from land revenues - without the permission of the Abul Hasan Qutb Shah.
As the temple was nearing completion, he was perplexed one night about fixing the Sudarshana Chakra at the crest of the main temple. On the same night, it is believed that he saw Rama in his dream and asked him to have a holy dip in the Godavari River. When Gopanna did so the next day, he found the holy Sudarshana Chakra in the river very easily.


Soon after the reconstruction though, his miseries started. He was dismissed from his job for misusing the Sultan Abul Hasan Qutb Shah's revenues and was imprisoned in the Golconda Fort[2] (near Hyderabad) with orders that he be released only after the exchequer received all the taxes in full. Ramadas implores Rama through many emotional songs that were popularized from the stanzas of 'Dasaradhi Sathakam ' and 'Keertanas' of Bhakta Ramadasa. They praise the Lord for all his mysterious ways in popularizing his devotees and Ramadasu regularly sings the Lord. The songs ended in a state of total and unconditional surrender to the will of the Almighty.


After 11–12 years of imprisonment, it is said that Lord Rama decided that his devotee's suffering had reached its pre-ordained ending (because of a certain transgression his soul had committed in a previous birth). Lord Rama and Lakshmana, disguised as two young warriors, entered the bed-chambers of the Sultan Tana Shah in the middle of the night. They presented themselves as Ramoji and Lakshmoji and gave the king six lakh gold coins imprinted with Rama's own seal in return for the spent six lakh silver coins. The Sultan was bewildered at the presence of these charming but strange youngsters in his inner quarters at late night irrespective of tight security. They demanded and obtained on the spot, a written receipt for the money. The receipt was shown to the jailer who released Gopanna the same night. The next day, both Gopanna and the Sultan realized what had happened. Gopanna did not care much for his release but was inconsolable at his not having seen his Lord even with all his devotion while the Sultan was visited by the Lord. The Lord then appeared to Gopanna in a dream and explained him the real reasons for his actions and promised him salvation at the end of his natural life. The king was convinced that what had happened was a miracle of Lord Sri Rama. He returned the entire money to the Bhadracalam temple. Since then, it has been the royal custom of the Hyderabad State (now part of Andhra Pradesh State) to send gifts to the temple on the occasion of Sree Rama navami celebrations every year.

Click here to download Bhadrachala Ramadasa Kirtana Lyrics


Click here to download Bhadrachala Ramadasa Keertanas

Sangita ratnakara of Sarangadeva

                        Sangita ratnakara Vol1 Sarangadeva

 Gandharva vedamu -Sangita ratnakara by Charla Ganapati Shastry in telugu

Gandharva vedamu by Charla Ganapati Shastry

The Sangita-Ratnakara of Sharngadeva (thirteenth century) is one of the most important musicological texts from India, which both Hindustani music and Carnatic music regard as a definitive text.
The text is also known as Saptadhyayi as it is divided into seven chapters. The first six chapters, Svaragatadhyaya, Ragavivekadhyaya, Prakirnakadhyaya, Prabandhadhyaya, Taladhyaya and Vadyadhyaya deal with the various aspects of music and musical instruments while the last chapter Nartanadhyaya deals with dance.
The significant commentaries on the text include the Sangitasudhakara of Simhabhupala (c.1330) and the Kalanidhi of Kallinatha (c.1430).
This work was written by Śārńgadēva in the end of thirteenth century. The author was attached to the court of Yādava King Singhaņa, whose capital was Devagiri ( the present Daulatabad, in the South Maharashtra)

Chapter summaries

As the title indicates the work deals with the subject of Sańgīta. Sańgīta is defined as a composite art consisting of Gīta (melodic forms), Vādya (forms for drumming) and Nŗtta (dance literally movements of the limbs of the body). Sańgīta is of two kinds. Mārga-sańgīta and Deśī-sańgīta. Mārga-sańgīta is nothing but the Nāţya (Drama) performed by Bharata and his disciples. This performance of Bharata also consists of Gīta, Vādya and Nŗtta. Deśī-sańgīta represented a tradition different from Mārga and it varied from region to region.
Śārńgadēva's aim in this work is to describe primarily the Deśī-sańgīta. The aspects of Mārga-sańgīta are also described to some extent.
The work is divided into seven chapters covering the aspects Gīta, Vādya and Nŗtta. The seven chapters are:
  1. Svaragatādhyāya
  2. Rāgavivekādhyāya
  3. Prakīrņakādhyāya
  4. Prabandhādhyāya
  5. Tālādhyāya
  6. Vādyādhyāya
  7. Nartanādhyāya


Dattilam is an ancient Indian musical text ascribed to the sage (muni) Dattila. It is believed to have been composed shortly after the Natya Shastra of Bharata, and is dated between the 1st[1] and 4th[2] c. AD.
Written in 244 verses, Dattilam claims to be a synthesis of earlier works on music. The text marks the transition from the sama-gayan (ritual chants as in the Samaveda), to what is known as gandharva music, after the gandharvas, musically adept spirits who are first mentioned in the Mahabharata. Dattilam discusses scales (swara), the base note (sthana), and defines a tonal framework called grama in terms of 22 micro-tonal intervals (sruti) comprising one octave. It also discusses various arrangements of the notes (murchhana), the permutations and combinations of note-sequences (tanas), and alankara or elaboration.
The melodic structure is categorized into 18 groups called jati, which are the fundamental melodic structures pre-dating the concept of the raga. The names of the jatis reflect regional origins, e.g. andhri, oudichya. (Note that many modern raga names are also after regions - e.g. Khamaj, Kanada, Gauda, Multani, Jaunpuri, etc.). Ten characteristics are mentioned for each jati, which resemble the structuring and elaboration of the contemporary raga in Hindustani music.
Dattila (between 4th c. BCE and 2nd c. CE) is an early Indian musicologist, who refined the melodic structures, scales and other aspects of Indian Classical Music in his work Dattilam. Nothing is known of Dattila beyond the work Dattilam. In Bharata's Natya Shastra, Bharata gives a list of a hundred sons who will put the knowledge of performances (Natyaveda) to use. One of these sons is named Dattila[3], which had led to some speculation that Dattila may be a little later or contemporary to Bharata. However, today it is mostly felt, given the lack of Natyashastra elements in Dattilam, that he may have been a little earlier or a contemporary[3]. Of course, the date of Bharata is itself not known; usually he is dated somewhere between 400BC to 200AD.


25 August 2011

Vyasaraya Sankeertanas

  •  Biography
  • Vyasaraya Sankeertanas E-Book for download
Biography of Sri Vyasaraya:  

Vyasatirtha (1460–1539), also called Vyasaraja or Vyasaraya or Vyasraja swamin, was acclaimed as one of the three spiritual lights or munitrayam of dvaita Vedanta, i.e., Sri Madhvacharya, Sri Jayatirtha and Sri Vyasatirtha. He was a scholar of very high order with a judicious defence of the Dvaita Vedanta against all rival schools of thought. He also brought the Haridasa cult, historically believed to be propagated by Sri Narahari Tirtha, into limelight. He belonged to the Dvaita school of Madhvacharya. He, along with Jayatirtha, helped systematize Dvaita into an established school of Vedic thought. Vyasatirtha’s genius lay in his clear understanding and exposition of all his opposing schools of thought, for which even his opponents admired him. He was a master at debate and dialogue in logic and philosophy. Till the publication of the vyasayogicharita of the poet Somanatha, the world had no idea of the part played by Vyasatirtha in the history of the Vijayanagara empire. He was born inBannur in and about 1460 AD in the Mysore District in what is now the modern Karnataka state.[1] He was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. His father Rallanna Sumati, of kashyapa gotra, was the youngest of the six sons of Ramacharya. By blessings of Brahmanya Tirtha of Channapatna Rallanna Sumati had three children born to him- a girl and two boys. The youngest was Yatiraja the future Vyasaraja swamin. the traditional thread ceremony or upanayana at age of seven, for four years afterwards, he was at his gurukula(school) whence he home at eleven. There he went through the complete course of studies in kAvya, nATaka, alaMkAra and grammar, which must have covered at least a period of five years. As per the promise made by Rallanna, he himself took his son to Channapatna and presented him to Brahmanya Tirtha and returned home. Very much impressed with the superior attainment of his ward, Brahmanya Tirtha ordained his ward Yatiraja a monk and gave him the name Vyasatirtha. Assuming that he was sixteen years old at the time of demise of his Guru (some time after the great famine of 1475-76), we may easily fix the date of birth of Vyasatirtha in or about 1460 AD. Vyasatirtha did not had any time studying much under his Guru Brahmanya. He was obliged, soon after his succession to the head of the maTHa (or Pitha), to go to Kanchi, the center of the vedic studies in South India, in those days, where he is said to have stayed for many years studying six systems of philosophy, under the most eminent pandits there. It was probably here that Vyasatirtha acquired his deep erudition in the systems of Sankara, Ramanuja, Bhatta and others. After the completion of his studies at Kanchi, he went over to the seat of Shripadaraja at Mulbhagal. There he spent many years in study and meditation. Vyasatirtha is believed to have studied for several years under Shripadaraja.

Influence of Sri Vyasaraya

Vyasatirtha was extremely influential in the Vijayanagar Empire. He initially came to limelight in the court of Saluva Narasimha in Chandragiri where he defeated many scholars with his masterly debates. He headed the Tirupati Temple during the time 1486-1498 CE. At the pressing and repeated invitations of ministers of Saluva Narasimha, he moved to Vijayanagara and spent the rest of his life there. The accession of Shri Krishnadevaraya in 1509 AD opened up a new chapter of the glory in the life of Vyasatirtha. It was during the time of Krishnadevaraya that Vyasatirtha saw the peak of his influence over the empire. The king had the greatest regard and respect for Vyasatirtha and regarded him as nothing less than his kuladevata. This is very beautifully narrated by Somanatha in his biography on Vyasatirtha. The evidence of a clear statement to the effect that King regarded Vyasatirtha as his Guru is still saved as a palm leaf fragment (preserved in G.O. Mss. Library), Madras. The two foreign travellers Paes and Nuniz who travelled along the Vijayanagara empire give accounts of how the King Krishnadevaraya regarded his Guru. Nuniz in his catalog says that King of Bisnaga (vijayanagar) listened everyday to the preachings of “a learned Brahmin who never married nor touched a woman”. The description points unmistakably to Vyasatirtha. Nuniz’s remarks are fully corroborated by Somanatha’s biography. Somanatha writes that, before starting on his Raichur expedition, Krishnadevaraya performed a ritual ceremony “ratnabhisheka” to his Guru Vyasatirtha in year 1520 AD and gifted him with many villages. Somanatha goes on to say that after the death of Krishnadevaraya in year 1530 AD, Achutaraya continued to honor Vyasatirtha for some years. It was in Achutaraya’s reign that the image of Yogavarada Narasimha was set up by Vyasatirtha in the courtyard of the Vittalaswami temple at Hampi (Vijayanagara) in 1532. Seven years later, Vyasatirtha himself passed away at Vijayanagara on the fourth day of the dark fortnight of Phalguna, in Vilambi, corresponding to Saturday, 8 March 1539 AD. The data is given by Shri Puranadadasa in one of his songs. His mortal remains are entomed at Nava Brundavana, an island on Tungabhadra river, about half a mile east of Anegondi. Vyasatirtha was almost the second Founder of the system of Madhva. The learned Appayya Diksita is reported to have observed that the great Vyasatirtha “saved the melon of Madhvaism from bursting, by securing it with three bands” in the form of his three great works – the Nyayamrutha, Chandrika and Tarka-Tandava. There is a tradition that when the North Indian Logician Pakshadhara Mishra visited Mulbhagal, he had spoken most appreciatively of Vyasatirtha. Shri Vyasatirtha was a thinker of high order. He was essentially warm-hearted and felt himself as at home on the naked peaks of intellect and in the unfathomed depths of mystic consciousness and devotion to God. The biography of Vyasatirtha gives several accounts of his kind-heartedness. He treated Basavabhatta whom he vanquished in debate with exemplary kindness and regards. He allowed his preachings to take their gentle course of persuasion and disliked proselytization for the sake of numbers. He did not misuse his influence with Kings to make his faith the state religion. This attitude deserves to be contrasted with that of the Shrivaishnava’s, reported in the prappannamruta.


Vyasatirtha was a Psalmist in kannada and had composed many beautiful songs in his mother tongue kannada. More than even for his own compositions, his name will have to be invested with special significance as that of a person who gave to India, both Purandaradasa, the father of carnatic music, and Kanakadasa, disciples of Vyasaraya. Those who know anything about the history of great haridasa’s and their literature will have no difficulty in realizing service rendered by Vyasatirtha to the cause of popular religion and cultural revival. The influence of Vyasatirtha was felt far beyond the limits of Karnataka, in the heart of distant Bengal. It is now fairly well known that the Bhakti movement of Chaitanya who flourished wholly within the lifetime of Vyasatirtha, owed a great deal of its inspiration to philosophy of Madhva and its exposition by Vyasatirtha. If properly viewed, the influence of Vyasatirtha would be seen to have brought about a glorious religious renaissance in the XVI century, simultaneously in the north and in the south India.

              Brindavanam of Sri Vyasaraya


His famous works include -
  • Nyayamritam (The nectar of Logic)
In his magnum opus, Vyasatirtha has undertaken a complete vindication of the philosophical power and prestige of the realistic metaphysics of Madhva, together with a discussion of its concomitant problems. He goes through a long and arduous process of thought-dissection, to show that the thesis of Monism cannot be proved and that there is no philosophical justification for rejecting the reality of the world and its experiences established by all known means of proof and knowledge.
  • Tarkatandava (The Dance of Logic)
In his own inimitable way, Vyasatirtha has undertaken thorough and up to date examination of his school and Nyaya-Vaishesika.
  • Tatparya Chandrika (The Moonbeams of commentary)
This is more familiar by name Chandrika, is a discursive commentary on Jayatirtha’s Tatva-prkakAshika and pertains to the Sutra Prasthana of the Dvaita Vedanta.
  • Mayavada Khandana Mandaramanjari
  • Upadhi Khandana Mandaramanjari
  • Prapancha Mithyatvanumana Khandana Mandaramanjari
  • Tattvaviveka Mandaramanjari
  • Bhedojjivana
This is a short work in 275 grantha’s and as the name itself suggests, is intended to resuscitate Bheda or difference that has been sought to be stifled by monists.
  • Sattarkavilasa
Sattarkavilasa is a book known to us only through cross reference.

The Place of Vyasatirtha in the Dvaita philosophy/Dvaita system

As Shri BNK Sharma says, Vyasatirtha is the prince of the Dialecticians of the Dvaita systems. He carried forward the work of his distinguished predecessors: Madhva, Jayatirtha and Vishnudasa and explored and exhausted all the technical and Shastric possibilities of making the doctrines and interpretations of his school, impregnable and invulnerable to attacks from any quarter. Dr Dasagupta pays him the highest tribute the modern historian of Indian philosophy could pay when he says that “the logical skill and depth of acute dialectical thinking shown by Vyasatirtha, stands almost unrivaled in the whole of Indian thought” (p. viii, preface to vol. IV op. cit). He also follows the example of great dialecticians like Udayana, Shriharhsa and Chitsuka in summing up the discussion of the topic at the end of the sections in pithy samgrahashloka’s. Vyasatirtha has thus enlarged the scope and vision of Madhva shastra and its commentaries (tIkA’s) with the exegetical apparatus of nyAya, vyAkaraNa and mImAMsa shAstrAs and expanded the significance of the original texts of his school in light of their methodology. His Tatparya-chandrika is a commentary, only in name; in effect, it is a scintillating critical and comparative study of the interpretation of the Brahmasutras according to the Bhashyas of the three main schools of Vedanta (together with their important commentaries). Its powerful flow of arguments and breathtaking points of criticism are such as to leave the modern scholar and critic, grappling with the Sutras and their commentaries, dumb with astonishment at the masterly way in which Vyasatirtha has successfully probed the problem of the interpretation of Sutras. The tradition rightly regards him, with Madhva and Jayatirtha as constituting the ‘trinity of authorities on Madhva siddhanta’. He showed to the philosophical world that the system of Madhva was not just an effervescence of Puranic Hinduism or merely revival of Bhakti cult but a mighty philosophical movement of thought and a well laid metaphysical structure that could hold its own against other speculative systems in the field, for richness and depth of thought and fineness of the speculative content. The age of Vyasatirtha was, thus, the most glorious epoch in the history if Dvaita school and its literature and philosophy and has not been rivaled, either before or after him for so much all-round distinction, progress and development. The political influence of the Madhva school also rose to its highest level under Vyasatirtha. He enjoyed the closest affection, and commanded the highest esteem of the great Hindu emperor of South India, Krishnadevaraya. Vyasaraya Sankeertanas E-Book:
Click here to download Sankeertanas of Sri Vyasaraayaru in kannada

Jayadeva Ashtapadi

Tallapakam Annamacharya Sankeertana Books


  •  Personal life of Annamacharya
  • Literary career
  • Annamacharya E-books for download

Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya (Telugu: శ్రీ తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య) (or Annamayya) (May 9, 1408 – February 23, 1503) was the official songmaster of the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, and a Telugu composer who composed around 36000 keertana songs,many of which were in praise of Venkateswara, the presiding deity of the temple. The musical form of the keertana songs that he composed have strongly influenced the structure of Carnatic music compositions, which are still popular among Carnatic music concert artists. Sri Annamacharya is remembered for his saintly life, and is honoured as a great Bhakta/devotee of Bhagwaan Govinda by devotees and saintly singers.
He is widely regarded as the Pada-kavita Pitaamaha (grand old man of song-writing) of the Telugu language.

Personal life

Annamacharya was born on Vaisakha Suddha Pournami in the year Sarwadhari (May 9, 1408) in Tallapaka, a village in current day Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India.[5] His wife, Thimmakka,[6] had written Subhadra Kalyanam, and is considered the first female poet in Telugu literature. Their son, Pedda Tirumalacharya, and grandson, Tallapaka Chinnayya, were also composers and poets. The Tallapaka compositions are considered to have dominated and influenced the structure of Carnatic music compositions.[2] Annamacharya lived for 94 years until Phalguna Bahula Dwadasi (12th day after full moon) in the year Dhundhubhi (February 23, 1503).

Literary career

Annamacharya is said to have composed as many as 36,000 sankeertanas (songs) on Bhagwaan Govinda Venkateswara, of which only about 12,000 are available today.
Annamacharya considered his compositions as floral offerings to Bhagwaan Govinda. In the poems, he praises Venkateswara, describes his love for him, argues and quarrels with the Lord, confesses the devotee's failures and apprehensions, and surrenders himself to Venkateshwara. His songs are classified into the Adhyaatma (spiritual) and Sringaara (romantic) sankeertanas genres. His songs in the "Sringaara" genre worship Bhagwaan Venkateswara by describing his amorous and romantic adventures of Venkateswara and Alamel Manga, while others describe the Bhakti of his devotees.

In his later keertanas, he espouses subjects such as morality, dharma and righteousness. He was one of the first few who opposed the social stigma towards the untouchable castes in his era,with his sankeertanas explaining that the relationship between God and human is the same irrespective of the latters' color, caste and financial status, in beautiful yet powerful usage of words in his songs "Brahmam Okkate Parabrahmam Okkate..." and "E Kulajudainanemi Evvadainanemi..."

His choice of words gives a mellifluous tone to his songs, charming the listener. His prodigious literary career earned him a place among the all-time greats of Telugu literature.
According to legend, Annamacharya met up with Purandara Dasa and both of them composed music and lyrics. They met when Annamacharya had invited Purandara Dasa to join him in singing praise.
While enjoying popularity in his own days, his compositions were forgotten for over three centuries for some inexplicable reason. They were later found engraved on copper plates, hidden for centuries inside the Sri Venkateswara temple at Tirumala, just opposite the Hundi, concealed in a very small room.
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, also known as TTD, has been endeavouring to preserve the rich heritage of his compositions.

Annamacharya E-books for download:

1.Annamacharya sahitya and jeevana charitra books published by Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams

Tallapaka Annamacharya Sankeertana Bhandaram

3. Annamacharya Keertanas volume 1 to 29 published by Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams

6. Sri Venkateshwara vachanamulu by Tallapakam Pedda Tirumalacharya  in telugu ( Son of Annamacharaya)

7. Sankirtana Lakshanamu by Tallapakam Chinna Tirumalacharya


24 August 2011

Jaya Chamaraja wodeyar Keertanas

Biography of Maharaja of Mysore Sri Jayachamaraja Wodeyar

Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur (July 18, 1919 – September 23, 1974) was the 25th and the last Maharaja of the princely state of Mysore from 1940 to 1950. He was a noted philosopher, musicologist, political thinker and philanthropist.

He was the only son of Yuvaraja Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar and Yuvarani Kempu Cheluvaja Amanni. He graduated from the Maharajas College, Mysore in 1938, earning five awards and gold medals. He was married the same year, on Sunday, 15 May 1938. He toured Europe during 1939, visiting many associations in London and became acquainted with many artists and scholars. He ascended the throne of the Kingdom of Mysore on September 8, 1940 after the demise of his uncle Maharaja Nalvadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar.
He signed the Instrument of Accession with the Dominion of India on the eve of India attaining Independence in August 1947. The princely state of Mysore was merged with the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. He held the position of Rajpramukh of the State of Mysore from 1950–1956. After the integration of the neighboring Kannada-majority parts of the States of Madras and Hyderabad, he became the first Governor of the reorganized or unified State of Mysore, 1956–64 and later was transferred as the Governor of the State of Madras (Tamil Nadu), 1964-66.


He was a good horseman and a tennis player who helped Ramanathan Krishnan to participate at Wimbledon. He was also well-known for his marksmanship and was highly sought-after by his subjects whenever a rogue elephant or a maneating tiger attacked their immediate surroundings. There are many wildlife trophies attributed to him in the Palace collections. He was responsible for the famous cricketer/off-spin bowler, Mr. E.A.S. Prasanna's visit to West Indies as his father was otherwise reluctant to send him.


He was a connoisseur of both western and Carnatic (South Indian classical) music and an acknowledged authority of Indian Philosophy. He helped the Western world discover the music of a little-known Russian composer Nikolai Karlovich Medtner (1880–1951), financing the recording of a large number of his compositions and founding the Medtner Society in 1949. Medtner's Third Piano Concerto is dedicated to the Maharaja of Mysore. He became a Licentiate of the Guild Hall of Music, London and honorary Fellow of Trinity College of Music, London, in 1945. Aspirations to become a concert pianist were cut short by the untimely death of both his father the Yuvaraja Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wodeyar in 1939 and his uncle the Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV in 1940, when he succeeded the throne of Mysore.
Maharaja was equally a good critic of music. When asked by Legge to pass judgement on recent additions to the EMI catalogue, his views were as trenchant as they were refreshingly unpredictable. He was thrilled to Karajan's Vienna Philhormonic recording of Beethoven's fifth symphony ('as Beethoven wished it to be'), held Furtwangler's recording of the Fourth symphony in high esteem and was disappointed by Galliera's account of the Seventh Symphony which he would have preferred Karajan to record. Above all he expressed serious doubts about Toscanini's recordings. 'The speed and energy are those of a demon', he wrote to Legge, 'not an angel or superman as one would ardently hope for'. One of the reasons he so admired Furtwangler' Beethoven was that it was 'such a tonic after Toscanini's highly stung, vicious performances'.
After becoming Maharaja, he was initiated to the Indian Classical Music (carnatic Music) due to the cultural vibrancy which prevailed in the Mysore Court till then. He learnt to play veena under Vid. Venkatagiriappa and mastered the nuances of carnatic music under the tutelage of Veteran Composer and Asthan Vidwan Sri. Vasudevacharya. He was also initiated in to the secrets of Shri Vidya as an upasaka (under assumed name chitprabhananda) by his guru Shilpi Siddalingaswamy. This inspired him to compose as many as 94 carnatic music kruti's under the assumed name of shri vidya. All the compositions are in different raga's and some of them for the first time ever. In the process He also built three temples in Mysore city: Bhuvaneshvari Temple and Gayatri Temple, located inside the Mysore Palace Fort, and Sri Kamakaameshwari Temple, situated on Ramanuja Road, Mysore. All three Temples were sculpted by the maharajs's Guru and famous sculptor, Shilpi Siddalingaswamy.
Many noted Indian musicians received patronage at his court, including Mysore Vasudevacharya, Veena Venkata Giriyappa, B. Devendrappa, V. Doraiswamy Iyengar, T. Chowdiah, Tiger Vardachar, Chennakeshaviah, Titte Krishna Iyengar, S.N.Mariappa, Chintalapalli Ramachandra Rao, R.N.Doreswamy, H.M.Vaidyalinga Bhagavatar.
The patronage and contribution of Wodeyars to carnatic has been researched in the 1980s by Prof. Mysore Sri V. Ramarathnam,Retired First Principal of the University College of Music and Dance, University of Mysore. The research was conducted under the sponsorship of University Grants Commission, Government of India. Prof. Mysore Sri V. Ramarathnam authored the book "Contribution and Patronage of Wodeyars to Music" that was published Kannada Book Authority, Bangalore.

Literary works

  • The Quest for Peace: an Indian Approach, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 1959.
  • Dattatreya: The Way & The Goal, Allen & Unwin, London 1957.
  • The Gita and Indian Culture, Orient Longmans, Bombay, 1963.
  • Religion And Man, Orient Longmans, Bombay, 1965. Based on Prof. Ranade Series Lectures instituted at Karnataka University in 1961.
  • Avadhuta: Reason & Reverence, Indian Institute of World Culture, Bangalore, 1958.
  • An Aspect Of Indian Aesthetics, University of Madras, 1956.
  • Puranas As The Vehicles Of India's Philosophy Of History, Journal Purana, issue #5, 1963.
  • Advaita Philosophy, Sringeri Souvenir Volume, 1965, pages 62–64.
  • Sri Suresvaracharya, Sringeri Souvenir Volume, Srirangam, 1970, pages 1–8.
  • Kundalini Yoga, A review of "Serpent Power" by Sir John Woodroff.
  • Note on Ecological Surveys to precede Large Irrigation Projects- Wesley Press, Mysore; 1955
  • African Survey-Bangalore Press; 1955
  • The Virtuous Way of Life- Mountain Path -July 1964 edition

He also sponsored the translation of many classics from Sanskrit to Kannada as part of the Jayachamaraja Grantha Ratna Mala, including 35 parts of the Rigveda. These are essentilly Ancient sacred scriptures in Sanskrit till then not available in kannada language comprehensively. All the books contains original text in kannada accompanied by kannada translation in simple language for the benefit of common man. In the history of Kannada literature such a monumental work was never attempted ! As Late H.Gangadhara Shastry - Asthan (court) Astrologer and Dharmadhikari of Mysore Palace - who himself has contributed substantially in the above works -has stated that Maharaja used to study each and everyone of these works and discuss them with the authors. It seems on a festival night ( on shivaratri), he was summonned in the middle of the night and advised him to simplify the use of some difficult kannada words in one of the books.
The following is a list of books published under this series:
  • RugvEda - in 35 parts
  • shaMkarAcArya's stOtras - in 2 parts
  • mUkapaMcashatI
  • kAmakalpa tarustava
  • tripurasuMdarI mAnasika pUjA
  • gurugItA
  • shivagItA
  • mahAmasta purashcaraNa vidhiH
  • ShoDashI pUjA kalpa
  • bhuvanEshvarI pUja kalpa
  • rudra mahAnyAsa prayOga
  • sUktagaLu
  • dEvI bhAgavata in 5 parts; translated by eDatore caMdrashEKarashAstrI (year 1942-43)
  • shiva purANa
  • shiva rahasya
  • skAMda mahApurANa
  • kALikA purANa- in 2 parts: by hAsanada paMDit veMkaTarAv (28-5-44)
  • vaRAha purANa
  • bhaviShya purANa
  • gaNesha purANa
  • vAmana purANa
  • kaMcI mahAtmye
  • viShNu dharmOttara purANa
  • brahmAMDa purANa
  • nAradIya purANa
  • rAma maMtra mahime, (agastya saMhite)
  • narasiMha purANa
  • sAMba purANa
  • saura purANa
  • Adi purANa
  • kalki purANa
  • matsya purANa
  • kUrma purANa
  • shiva tatva sudhAnidhiH- By vE.bra|| es. sItArAmashAstri (24-6-49)
  • hAlAsya mahAtmye
  • gArgya saMhitA
  • brahma vyevarta purANa
  • brahma purANa
  • shaMkara saMhite
  • padmapurANa
  • viShNu purANa in three parts: Translated by paMDita gaMjAM timaNNayya; year 1948; Total pages (492+460+463)
maMtrashAstra -sahasranAma - upaniShat
  • parivAsya rahasya
  • tripurAtApinyupaniShat''
  • lalitAtrishati bhAShya
  • tripurA rahasya''
  • shrIKAMDa sArArtha bhOdhinI
  • sUta saMhitE
  • vanadurgOpaniShat
  • shAradA sahasranAma
  • gaNesha sahasranAma
  • dakShiNAmUrti sahasranAma
  • shiva pUja paddhati